This definition of data governance describes the concept at the micro level. However, data governance is also used as a term at the macro level, where it describes regulations on data exchange between states.
Johannsen and Goeken, 2006:
Data governance is "the responsible, sustainable organization and management of activities aimed at long-term value creation, and thus the entire system of internal and external management, control, and monitoring mechanisms" in dealing with data."
A data strategy is part of comprehensive data governance. While the data strategy answers the question of which goals are to be achieved through the use of data, data governance is even more comprehensive and encompasses all the guidelines, processes, roles and organizational structures in relation to data. Particularly in view of the massive digitization processes in cities and municipalities, it is of enormous importance that data is controlled - and that there is clarity about how it should be controlled. This also includes clarifying concepts such as data sovereignty.
Data governance must answer the following questions:
What decisions need to be made organization-wide and in collaboration with partners regarding data?
Which organizational roles are involved in these decisions?
In what ways are the people who fill those roles involved?
Advice on data governance is part of DKSR ‘s central area of competence. The data governance checklist on Square can help cities analyze the status of their own data governance, identify weak points, and draft initial sensible options for action.